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Diabetes and artificial intelligence beyond the closed loop: a review of the landscape, promise and challenges – published online 18/11/2023

Mackenzie graphical abstract

Scott C. Mackenzie, Chris A. R. Sainsbury, Deborah J. Wake

The rise of artificial intelligence (AI) has brought both promise and apprehension across numerous industries, and healthcare is no exception. In the context of diabetes care, current AI technologies predominantly target type 1 diabetes, representing just the tip of the iceberg in terms of potential. In this review, Mackenzie et al ( provide a comprehensive perspective on how AI stands poised to revolutionise the entire spectrum of diabetes care. This transformation encompasses empowering self-management, delivering personalised educational support, and leveraging diverse data sources for predictive analytics and clinical-decision support. The authors state that the ultimate objectives are to enhance the quality of clinical care whilst streamlining its delivery. However, the rapid pace of diabetes AI innovation, coupled with a limited evidence base, presents challenges to achieving safe, integrated and ethically responsible adoption. Mackenzie et al suggest that, to unlock the full potential of AI-enabled diabetes care, stakeholders must collaborate to address issues concerning clinical safety, technological readiness, health equity and user acceptance. The figures from this review are available as a downloadable slideset.

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