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Epidemiology of heart failure in diabetes: a disease in disguise – published online 09/02/2024

Hoek graphical abstract

Anna G. Hoek, Elisa Dal Canto, Eva Wenker, Navin Bindraban, M. Louis Handoko, Petra J. M. Elders, Joline W. J. Beulens

Heart failure (HF) and type 2 diabetes are closely linked, and concomitantly pose an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In this issue, Hoek et al ( present a comprehensive review of the epidemiology of HF in people with type 2 diabetes using both a narrative and systematic review approach. In their systematic review/meta-analysis, the authors reveal that there is a higher prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD; 43%) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; 17%) in type 2 diabetes, as compared with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD; 6%) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; 7%). Furthermore, HFpEF incidence (7%) was shown to surpass HFrEF incidence (4%), emphasising the predominance of LVDD/HFpEF in type 2 diabetes. For LVDD, when assessed by grade (grade I, II or II) or by classification (indeterminate vs definitive), grade I and indeterminate LVDD were highly prevalent; this indicates that there is a large pre-clinical group with early LVDD that could be targeted for early disease detection, to reduce disease burden. The authors conclude that there is a need for easily accessible and reliable tools for diagnosing HF. They outline how the introduction of uniform and accessible guidelines for diagnosing HF (published by the European Society of Cardiology [ESC] in 2021) and the use of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors may lead to more effective treatment of HF in type 2 diabetes. The figures from this review are available as a downloadable slideset.

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