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Patient-reported outcomes for people with diabetes: what and how to measure? A narrative review – published online 24/05/2023

Terwee graphical abstract

Caroline B. Terwee, Petra J. M. Elders, Marieke T. Blom, Joline W. Beulens, Olaf Rolandsson, Alize A. Rogge, Matthias Rose, Nicola Harman, Paula R. Williamson, Frans Pouwer, Lidwine B. Mokkink, Femke Rutters

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are important for shared decision making and standardisation of outcomes in research. However, in the field of diabetes, the use of PROs and associated patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is heterogeneous. A core outcome set for clinical trials and an International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) standard set for clinical practice have been developed, but they, as well as other initiatives, recommend different PROs and PROMs. Standardisation of relevant outcomes and outcome measures is therefore needed. In this issue, Terwee et al ( provide recommendations on the selection of relevant PROs and PROMs for use in clinical practice and research in people with diabetes. The figure from this review is available as a downloadable slide

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