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Sex differences in the association between diabetes and cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 121 cohorts including 20 million individuals and one million events – published online 20/07/2018

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by Toshiaki Ohkuma, Sanne A. E. Peters, Mark Woodward

In several systematic reviews and meta-analyses, diabetes has been associated with the risk of all-site and some site-specific cancers. However, there has been no systematic overview of the evidence available on sex differences in the association between diabetes and cancer. In this issue, Ohkuma et al (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4664-5) report that diabetes was associated with a higher risk of all-site cancer in both sexes, but there was a ~6% greater risk in women compared with men. Diabetes was also associated with several site-specific cancers and conferred a significantly greater excess risk in women than men for oral, stomach and kidney cancer, and for leukaemia, but a lower excess risk for liver cancer. These findings indicate the importance of a sex-specific approach to analysis of the role of diabetes for cancer prevention and treatment.

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