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Sex differences in type 2 diabetes – published online 10/03/2023

Kautzky-Willer graphical abstract

Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Michael Leutner, Jürgen Harreiter

Our understanding of the sex and gender differences in type 2 diabetes has increased over the past decade. In this issue, Kautzky-Willer et al ( summarise recent advances in our knowledge of sex-specific clinical features of type 2 diabetes, and the differences between women and men in risk, diagnosis, management and outcomes of type 2 diabetes. The authors discuss how, overall, men have a slightly higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes diagnosis at a younger age while being less obese. Psychosocial stress is a more prominent diabetes risk factor for women than men, and women have a greater cardiometabolic risk factor burden than men at the time of diagnosis. Pregnancy complications, especially gestational diabetes, and early menopause increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women, while low testosterone levels are associated with a higher risk in men. The authors conclude that more aggressive risk management needs to be implemented for both men and women who are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes, as well as for those with established diabetes. The figures from this review are available as a downloadable slideset

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