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SGLT2i and GLP‑1 RA therapy in type 1 diabetes and reno‑vascular outcomes: a real‑world study – published online 28/07/2023

Matthew Anson, Sizheng S. Zhao, Philip Austin, Gema H. Ibarburu, Rayaz A. Malik, Uazman Alam

The beneficial extra-glycaemic effects of SGLT2i and GLP-1 RA on weight, renal protection and major adverse cardiovascular events are well established and make them attractive therapies in type 2 diabetes compared with other more traditional glucose-lowering agents. People with type 1 diabetes share many of the same cardiovascular risk factors as those with type 2 diabetes. Such novel agents are not approved for type 1 diabetes but are still prescribed off-label, with a paucity of robust data underpinning their safety and efficacy in this cohort. In this issue, Anson et al (https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-023-05975-8) undertake a retrospective analysis of individuals with type 1 diabetes adjunctively treated with either an SGLT2i or a GLP-1 RA, with outcomes analysed 5 years after initiation of therapy. The authors show that individuals treated with an SGLT2i had a reduced risk of developing heart failure and chronic kidney disease and of being hospitalised for any cause compared with those adjunctively treated with a GLP-1 RA, despite an increased risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. They conclude that the findings suggest a net overall benefit of SGLT2i in type 1 diabetes compared with GLP-1 RA therapy and that dedicated long-term randomised trials are warranted to validate these findings.

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