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Accepted Abbreviations

A

Full Text Abbreviation
acceleration of free fall g
adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH
cyclic adenosine 3´,5´- monophosphate cAMP
adenosine 5´-phosphate AMP
adenosine 5´-diphosphate ADP
adenosine 5´-triphosphate ATP
adenosine triphosphatase ATPase
advanced glycation end-product AGE
albumin excretion rate AER
American Diabetes Association ADA
ampère A
analysis of covariance ANCOVA
analysis of variance ANOVA
angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE
area under the curve AUC
atom per cent excess APE

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B

Full Text Abbreviation
base pair bp
becquerel Bq
blood pressure BP, express in mmHg
body mass index BMI
bovine serum albumin BSA
5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine BrdU

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C

Full Text Abbreviation
5’—C—phosphate—G—3′ CpG
centimetre (square centimetre) cm (cm2)
chi-square χ2
cluster of differentiation CD
coefficient of variation CV
coenzyme A and its acyl derivatives CoA and acyl-CoA
complementary DNA cDNA
confidence interval CI
coronary heart disease CHD
correlation coefficient r
counts/minute; counts/second cpm; cps
Cycle threshold Ct
cycles/second (frequency) Hz

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D

Full Text Abbreviation
dates 2 November 1998
degrees, Celsius or centigrade °C
degrees of freedom df
deoxyribonuclease DNase
deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Diabetes Control and Complications Trial DCCT
4´,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole DAPI
dimethylsulphoxide DMSO
disintegrations/minute dpm
disintegrations/second dps
dissociation constant Kd
doses avoid Latin designations (for instance, b. d. or t. i. d.)
Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium DMEM

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E

Full Text Abbreviation
median effective dose ED50
electrocardiogram ECG
electroencephalogram EEG
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA
epidermal growth factor EGF
estimated glomerular filtration rate eGFR
ethylene diamime tetra-acetic acid EDTA
ethylene glycol-O-bis(2-amino-ethyl)-N, N, N´, N´-tetraacetic acid EGTA
European Association for the Study of Diabetes EASD

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F

Full Text Abbreviation
fetal bovine serum FBS
fetal calf serum FCS
flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD
flavin adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) FADH2
fluorescein isothiocyanate FITC
fluorescence activated cell sorter FACS
fractional disappearance rate k
free fatty acids – not used; use non-esterified fatty acids NEFA

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G

Full Text Abbreviation
gas chromatography GC
gas chromatography-mass spectrometry GC-MS
glomerular filtration rate GFR
glucose transporter GLUT
glutamic acid decarboxylase GAD
gram g
gravitational field, unit of g
cyclic guanosine 3´,5´-monophosphate cyclic GMP
guanosine 5´-phosphate GMP
guanosine 5´-diphosphate GDP
guanosine 5´-triphosphate GTP

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H

Full Text Abbreviation
haemoglobin concentration g/l
haemoglobin A1 HbA1
haemoglobin A1c HbA1c
half-life t1/2
hazard ratio HR
hertz Hz
high density lipoprotein HDL
high performance liquid chromatography HPLC
HLA nomenclature Bodmer et al. (1997)
homeostatic model assessment HOMA
hour h
human leucocyte antigen HLA
human umbilical vein endothelial cells HUVECs
Human Immunology 53:
98–128
4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulphonic
acid
HEPES

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I

Full Text Abbreviation
immunoglobulins A, D, E, G, M IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50
inner diameter i. d.
insulin-like growth factor IGF
insulin-receptor substrate IRS
interferon IFN
interleukin IL
intraperitoneal i. p.
intravenous i. v.
intravenous glucose tolerance test IVGTT

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J

Full Text Abbreviation
joule J

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K

Full Text Abbreviation
kilobase kb
kilocalories kcal
kilogram kg
Krebs-Ringer buffer KRB

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L

Full Text Abbreviation
median lethal dose LD50
lipoproteins (serum) – high density HDL
lipoproteins (serum) – low density LDL
lipoproteins (serum) – very low density VLDL
litre l (write in full if confusion with numeral 1 possible)
logarithm (base 10) log10
logarithm (base e) ln
low density lipoprotein LDL

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M

Full Text Abbreviation
major histocompatibility complex MHC
mass spectrometry MS
maturity onset diabetes of the young MODY
messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA
metre (square metre) m (m2)
Michaelis constant Km
micromole µmol
micron (10–6 m) µm
milliequivalents not used; use: mmol/l
millilitre ml
millimetre (millimetre squared) mm (mm2)
millimetre of mercury mmHg for blood pressure (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa)
millimolar (concentration) mmol/l (not mM)
millimole mmol
milliunit mU
millivolt mV
minute (60 seconds) min
milliosmole mosmol
molar (concentration) mol/l (not M)
mole mol
molecular weight mol. wt or Mr (not daltons)

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N

Full Text Abbreviation
nanogram ng
neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin NPH insulin
nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide NAD if oxidation state
not indicated
NAD+ if oxidized
NADH if reduced
nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADP if oxidation state
not indicated
NADP+ if oxidized
NADPH if reduced
non-esterified fatty acid NEFA
non-obese diabetic mouse NOD mouse
not significant NS
number in a sample n

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O

Full Text Abbreviation
odds ratio OR
oral glucose tolerance test OGTT
osmolality express in osmol/kg or mosmol/kg

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P

Full Text Abbreviation
pascal Pa
per cent %
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK
phosphate-buffered saline PBS
picogram pg
polymerase chain reaction PCR
pressure express in kPa (except for blood pressure and gas tensions) (1 kPa = 7.5 mm Hg)
probability of an event being due to chance alone p

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R

Full Text Abbreviation
radioimmunoassay RIA
rate constant k
relative risk RR
respiratory quotient RQ
restriction fragment length polymorphism RFLP
reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR
revolutions rev
revolutions/minute rev/min (not rpm) (use g if appropriate)
ribonuclease RNase
Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium RPMI medium

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S

Full Text Abbreviation
saline do not use; give strength of solution (e. g. NaCl 154 mmol/l)
second (time) s
sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE
specific activity sp. act.
standard deviation SD
standard error of the mean SEM
steroid nomenclature see Eur J Biochem (1989) 186: 429–458
subcutaneously s. c.
sum Σ

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T

Full Text Abbreviation
terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling TUNEL
thyroxine (3,3´,5,5´ tetraiodothyronine) T4
time of day e. g. 18:15 hours
transforming growth factor TGF
transport rate (maximum) Tm
triiodothyronine (3,3´,5- triiodothyronine) T3
tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane TRIS
tumour necrosis factor-α TNF-α

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U

Full Text Abbreviation
unit U

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V

Full Text Abbreviation
versus vs
very low density lipoprotein VLDL
maximum velocity Vmax
volt V

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W

Full Text Abbreviation
waist-to-hip ratio WHR
watt W
wavelength λ
World Health Organization WHO

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